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Heavy metals in cement and concrete resulting from the co-incineration of wastes in cement kilns with regard to the legitimacy of waste utilisation

Heavy metals in cement and concrete resulting from the co-incineration of wastes in cement kilns with regard to the legitimacy of waste utilisation
Project team:

Achternbosch, Matthias (Project leader); Klaus-Rainer Bräutigam; Nicola Hartlieb; Christel Kupsch; Ulf Richers; Peter Stemmermann (ITC-WGT)

Funding:

Umweltbundesamt Berlin - Förderkennzeichen 200 33 335

Start date:

2000

End date:

2003

Research group:

Sustainability and environment

Project description

Cement is an important binding agent for construction industry and is produced world-wide in large amounts. A central process step during the manufacturing of cement is the production of the intermediate product clinker. For this production, inorganic raw materials are burnt at temperatures in the range of 1,500°C. In order to reduce the costs of this energy-intensive process which has a high share in the manufacturing costs of cement, regular fuels are increasingly substituted by secondary fuels. In cement manufacture, use of waste is not restricted to the use as an energy carrier in the burning process of clinker production. Waste is also used as an alternative inorganic raw material as well as an interground additive in the cement grinding process. All types of waste contain trace elements. With exception of the share which is emitted and which is very small for most elements, these elements are transferred into the product cement.

Aim of this project was to investigate the impact of the use of secondary fuels, secondary raw materials and blending agents on trace element concentrations in cement and concrete. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate under which conditions and to which extent the incorporated trace elements can be released into the environment. Additionally, it should be proofed, whether regulations, standards, directives, etc. for the production of cement and corresponding construction products contain specific requirements for pollutant loads.

The study has shown, that presently used secondary raw materials and fuels result in some cases in a slight increase in trace element concentrations in cement. However, a general assessment of the use of wastes in cement production and of its impact on trace element input can not be performed. Furthermore, future developments can hardly be estimated.

The release of trace elements from concrete elements is negligible small during the phase of use. An increased release of trace elements is possible under special assumptions after demolition. However, the present knowledge is not sufficient for a definite assessment.

Existing regulations concerning the production and use of cement do not presently contain defaults for allowed concentrations of pollutants. However, changes can be expected in future due to demands which are presently worked out for the EU.

Publications


2009
Presentations
Nieke, E.; Achternbosch, M.
Alternative Zementproduktionsverfahren aus CO₂-Sicht.
2009. Vortr.: Schwenk Zement KG, Ulm, 18.September 2009, Veranstaltung, SCHWENK Zement KG Ulm (2009), Ulm, Germany, September 18, 2009 
2008
Conference Papers
Bräutigam, K. R.; Achternbosch, M.; Kupsch, C.
Impact of the use of waste on trace element concentrations in cement and concrete.
2008. Internat.Forum on Improved Management of Cement Kiln for a Better Environment, Seoul, Korea, February 26, 2008 Proc.S.19-37 Seoul : Nat.Inst.for Environmental Research 
Presentations
Bräutigam, K. R.; Achternbosch, M.; Kupsch, C.
Impact of the use of waste on trace element concentrations in cement and concrete.
2008. Internat.Forum on Improved Management of Cement Kiln for a Better Environment, Seoul, Korea, February 26, 2008 Proc.S.19-37 Seoul : Nat.Inst.for Environmental Research 
2005
Journal Articles
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Hartlieb, N.; Kupsch, C.; Richers, U.; Stemmermann, P.
Impact of the use of waste on trace element concentrations in cement and concrete.
2005. Waste Management and Research, 23, 328–37. doi:10.1177/0734242X05056075
2004
Journal Articles
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Hartlieb, N.; Kupsch, C.; Stemmermann, P.; Richers, U.
Auswirkungen des Einsatzes von Abfällen bei der Zementherstellung auf die Spurenelementgehalte von Zement und Beton.
2004. Nachrichten - Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 36, 213–18 Full text Full text of the publication as PDF document
Presentations
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Hartlieb, N.; Kupsch, C.; Richers, U.; Stemmermann, P.
Trace element transfer into concrete due to the use of wastes.
2004. Proc.of the 19th Internat.Conf.on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, Pa., March 21-24, 2004 Chester, Pa. : The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management CD-ROM 
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Hartlieb, N.; Stemmermann, P.
Environmental impact of trace elements in concrete resulting from the co-incineration with conventional and secondary input materials.
2004. Proc.of the 23rd Annual Internat.Conf.on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies, Phoenix, Ariz., May 10-14, 2004 College Park, Md. : University of Maryland, 2004 CD-ROM IT3-049 
Bräutigam, K. R.; Achternbosch, M.; Hartlieb, N.; Kupsch, C.; Richers, U.; Stemmermann, P.
Impact of trace elements from secondary input materials on trace element concentrations of cement.
2004. 19th Internat.Conf.on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, Pa., March 21-24, 2004 
Hartlieb, N.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Achternbosch, M.
Development of heavy metal concentrations in cement due to increasing application of secondary input materials for cement production.
2004. Proc.of the 23rd Annual Internat.Conf.on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies, Phoenix, Ariz., May 10-14, 2004 College Park, Md. : University of Maryland, 2004 CD-ROM IT3-035 
2003
Book Chapters
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K.-R.; Hartlieb, N.; Kupsch, C.; Reßler, B.; Sardemann, G.; Richers, U.; Stemmermann, P.
Vorgehensweise und Probleme bei der Durchführung von Stoffstromanalysen.
2003. Jahrbuch des Instituts für Technikfolgenabschätzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS). 2001/2002. Hrsg.: A. Grunwald, 72–89, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe 
Journal Articles
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K.-R.; Hartlieb, N.; Kupsch, C.; Stemmermann, P.; Richers, U.
Untersuchung des Einflusses der Mitverbrennung von Abfällen in Zementwerken auf die Schwermetallbelastung des Produkts im Hinblick auf die Zulässigkeit der Abfallverwertung.
2003. Technikfolgenabschätzung, Theorie und Praxis, 12 (3-4), 86–90. doi:10.14512/tatup.12.3-4.86
Presentations
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Hartlieb, N.; Kupsch, C.; Richers, U.; Stemmermann, P.
Untersuchung des Einflusses des Abfalleinsatzes in Zementwerken auf die Schwermetallbelastung des Produktes.
2003. Fachworkshop Abfallwirtschaft : Umweltaspekte der energetischen Verwertung von Abfällen in der Zement- und Kalkindustrie und Kraftwerken (ENTSORGA 2003), Köln, 23.September 2003 
Hartlieb, N.; Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.
Graded application of wastes for cement production. How to approach a ’cleaner’ product cement.
2003. 22nd Internat.Conf.on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3), Orlando, Fla., May 12-16, 2003 
Hartlieb, N.; Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, M.
Mitverbrennung von Abfällen in Zementwerken - Aufklärung der Eintragspfade von Spurenelementen in den Zement mittels Stoffstromanalyse.
2003. Jahrestagung ’Umweltchemie und Ökotoxikologie - Forschung im Dienste des Umwelt- und Verbraucherschutzes’ Braunschweig, 6.-8.Oktober 2002 
2002
Journal Articles
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K.-R.
Stoffstromanalysen - Einführung in den Schwerpunkt.
2002. Technikfolgenabschätzung, Theorie und Praxis, 11 (1), 7–9. doi:10.14512/tatup.11.1.7
Conference Papers
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Vehlow, J.
Transferfaktoren.
2002. 13.DVV-Kolloquium Thermische Verfahren der Abfallbehandlung : Entwicklungen, Optimierung, Bewertung ; Fachtagung, Weimar, 23.-24.September 2002 Proc. Weimar : Bauhaus-Universität, 2002, 165–74 
Presentations
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.; Vehlow, J.
Transferfaktoren.
2002. 13.DVV-Kolloquium Thermische Verfahren der Abfallbehandlung : Entwicklungen, Optimierung, Bewertung ; Fachtagung, Weimar, 23.-24.September 2002 Proc. Weimar : Bauhaus-Universität, 2002 
Bräutigam, K. R.; Achternbosch, M.; Hartlieb, N.
Co-incineration of wastes in cement kilns. A comparison of calculated and measured concentration values of heavy metals in cement.
2002. 21st Internat.Conf.on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3), New Orleans, La., May 13-17, 2002 
2001
Book Chapters
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K.-R.
Mitverbrennung von Sekundärbrennstoffen in Zementwerken.
2001. 1999/2000 Jahrbuch des Instituts für Technikfolgenabschätzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS). Hrsg.: A. Grunwald, 142–147, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe 
Presentations
Achternbosch, M.; Bräutigam, K. R.
Co-incineration of secondary fuels in cement kilns.
2001. 3rd Internat.Symp.on Incineration, Bruxelles, B, July 2-4, 2001 
Bräutigam, K.-R.; Achternbosch, M.
Co-Incineration of Wastes in Cement Kilns-Mass Balances of selected Heavy Metals.
2001. International Conference on Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3 2001), Philadelphia, PA, USA, May 14–18, 2001 

Contact

Dr. Matthias Achternbosch
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS)
P.O. Box 3640
76021 Karlsruhe
Germany

Tel.: +49 30 28491-201
E-Mail