KIT-Logo Reinhard Grünwald

Greenhouse Gas – Bury it into Oblivion
Options and Risks of CO2 Capture and Storage

Berlin: Büro für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB), 2009
Series: Technology Assessment Studies Series, No 2, 142 pages

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Contents

The Committee's Preface 5
Summary 11
I Introduction 21
II State of the Art 25
    1 CO2 capture 26
        1.1 Post-combustion 27
        1.2 Pre-combustion 28
        1.3 Oxyfuel process 30
        1.4 Innovative CO2-separation processes 30
    2 Transport 32
    3 CO2 storage 35
        3.1 Geological storage mechanisms and options 35
        3.2 Other storage options 39
III Potentials, Risks, Costs 41
    1 Potentials for geological CO2 storage 41
        1.1 Estimated potentials 41
        1.2 Constraints, competing usage rights 43
        1.3 Research needs 45
    2 Risks, environmental impact 46
    3 Costs, competitiveness 51
        3.1 CO2 capture 51
        3.2 CO2 transport 54
        3.3 CO2 storage 55
        3.4 Costs of monitoring, liability, remediation 57
        3.5 Total costs and competitiveness 57
IV Integration of CCS into the Energy System 63
    1 Need for power-plant renewals 63
    2 Timeframe for the availability of CCS 64
    3 Retrofitting with CO2-capture technologies 66
        3.1 Capture-ready 67
        3.2 Market diffusion of CCS technologies 70
    4 International Perspective 71
V Public Opinion and Acceptance 75
    1 Positions of stakeholders 76
    2 Promoting acceptance 82
VI Legal Issues 85
    1 Tasks and objectives of a legal framework for CCS 85
    2 Analysis of the current legal framework 86
        2.1 CO2 capture 87
        2.2 CO2 transport 89
        2.3 CO2 injection and storage 90
        2.4 Procedural requirements 94
        2.5 Liability for damage associated with capture, transport and storage 94
    3 How to make CCS legally admissible? 95
        3.1 Interim solution to enable research and trial projects 96
        3.2 Fundamentals of a long-term regulatory framework for CCS 100
    4 How to make CCS economically attractive? 104
        4.1 Framework convention on climate change and Kyoto protocol 104
        4.2 Incentive framework in the context of Germany and the EU 106
VII Need for Action 115
VIII Bibliography 121
    1 Commissioned expert reports 121
    2 Other sources 121
Annex 135
    1 List of tables 135
    2 List of figures 135
    3 List of abbreviations 136
    4 Glossary 138

 

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