M. Achternbosch, K.-R. Bräutigam, M. Gleis, N. Hartlieb, C. Kupsch, U. Richers, P. Stemmermann
Karlsruhe: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe 2003
(Wissenschaftliche Berichte, FZKA 6923)
[Volltext/pdf (1 917 kb)] [Contents/htm] [Zusammenfassung/htm]
Aim of this project was to investigate the impact of the use of secondary fuels, secondary raw materials and blending agents on trace element concentrations in cement and concrete. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate under which conditions and to which extent the incorporated trace elements can be released into the environment. Additionally, it should be proofed, whether regulations, standards, directives, etc. for the production of cement and corresponding construction products contain specific requirements for pollutant loads.
The study has shown, that presently used secondary raw materials and fuels result in some cases in a slight increase in trace element concentrations in cement. However, a general assessment of the use of wastes in cement production and of its impact on trace element input can not be performed. Furthermore, future developments can hardly be estimated.
The release of trace elements from concrete elements is negligible small during the phase of use. An increased release of trace elements is possible under special assumptions after demolition. However, the present knowledge is not sufficient for a definite assessment.
Existing regulations concerning the production and use of cement do not presently contain defaults for allowed concentrations of pollutants. However, changes can be expected in future due to demands which are presently worked out for the EU.